Pathology; It is a branch of science that studies diseased tissues and organs. It is particularly concerned with the study and reporting of structural and functional abnormalities in cells, tissues and organs associated with disease. 
The word "pathology", which has passed into our language as the science of disease, is derived from the Greek word "pathos".
Traditionally, pathology is divided into two;
General pathology: It deals with diseases that involve many tissues and organs or cause widespread symptoms throughout the body. For example, inflammation, tumor, causes of cancer, spread to the organism, etc. are subjects of general pathology.
Specific pathology (system pathology): It deals with diseases involving certain organs, anatomical regions and systems. Special pathology; dermapathology, gynecopathology, neuropathology, eye pathology, lung pathology, liver pathology etc. divided into sections.
A pathologist tries to diagnose diseases by examining samples taken from tissues and organs that are thought to be diseased by various methods. The routinely used method for this is microscopic examination. Most of the pathologist's time is spent examining and reporting tissues with the naked eye and microscope. Many opportunities provided by modern technology can also be used by pathologists. These include those related to genetics and molecular biology.
It is usually done to diagnose and determine the stage of cancer. However, by taking samples from all tissues in the body, they can be examined with pathology tests and many diseases can be diagnosed.
It indicates the diagnosis reached by the pathologist as a result of the examination. The stage of the disease is written. If the diagnosis cannot be made for some reason, additional tests and re-sampling may be requested in the report. The time required to generate the report varies depending on the sample taken and disease status. Generally, reports are made within 5-7 days after the biopsy sample reaches the laboratory.
The word biopsy is a combination of the Greek words “bio” and “opsy”. “Bio” means life and “opsy” means image. Biopsy is a method of examining cells or tissues taken from the diseased area. The tissue taken is examined under a microscope. At the same time, various chemical analyzes can be made from the tissue. Biopsies can be taken from all organs in the human body. Some biopsies require surgery, while others can be done even without local anesthesia.
Biopsy is divided into types according to the way it is taken and the nature of the tissue taken.
  1. Excisional Biopsy: The complete removal of a suspicious formation and sending it for pathological examination is called excisional biopsy.
  2. Incisional Biopsy: It is the process of taking a sample by cutting a part of a suspicious formation in the body without completely removing it. These types of biopsies are usually performed in soft tissue (muscle, fat, connective tissue) tumors to differentiate whether the tumor is primarily benign or malignant.
  3. Endoscopic Biopsy: This is the most common type of biopsy. This procedure is done with a fiberoptic endoscope.
  4. Needle Biopsy: It is the collection of thin and long tissue samples such as string from the internal organs with special needles. These types of biopsies are used specifically for the liver. It is also a frequently used method in kidney and bone marrow examinations.
  5. Curettage (scraping): For diagnostic purposes, especially in women, endometrium and endocervix tissue samples are taken with this method. It is removed with a sharp instrument with rounded edges called curette. In addition, curettage method is used in bone lesions.
  6. Punch Biopsy: This technique is usually applied by dermatologists to take samples from skin discolorations and small masses. 
  7. Transurethral resection (TUR): It is a prostate resection performed by entering the urethra with the help of a device.
  8. Resection: It is the name given to the process of removing an organ or a structure belonging to the body by cutting it partially or completely. 
  • From superficial epithelium
  • Mucous membranes
  • Bronchi
  • Cervix
  • Kidney
cells in tissues and organs such as blood cells are prepared and examined by smear method. In addition, body fluids are also examined in this way. Cytological examination materials can be sent to the pathology laboratory by spreading on slides from the clinics.
  • Smear
  • Nipple discharge
  • Brushing-Swabbing Materials etc.
Cytological examination materials for the pathology laboratory; It can be sent from clinics in liquid form and smears can be made in the laboratory.
  • BOS
  • Pleural fluid
  • Bronchial aspiration fluid
  • Pee
  • Gastric juice
  • Fluids obtained from body cavities, etc.

In some surgeries, it directly affects the course of the surgery and ensures that the patient is minimally affected by the surgical process. It is known as the fastest pathological evaluation method.