Molecular Cytogenetic

It consists of a combination of molecular cytogenetics, molecular genetics and cytogenetics (see Cytogenetics); It is a method for detecting the genetic anomaly that causes disease, that is, the structure of chromosomes, loss or increase in genomic DNA by using various materials (DNA probes) that are capable of recognizing different parts of our DNA. An example of this method is the so-called fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) technique, in which DNA probes are labeled with different colored fluorescent labels to visualize one or more specific regions of the genome.  There are also several subtypes of the FISH method that serve different purposes:

Locus-specific probes are designed to bind to a specific region of a chromosome. And the loss or increase of this part, depending on whether there is binding, is defined.

Probes that stain all chromosomes are a mixture of smaller probes, each of which binds to a different sequence along the length of a given chromosome. In this method called Multicolor-FISH (M-FISH), each chromosome can be labeled in its own unique color. The result is a full color map of the karyotype. This method is primarily useful for examining chromosomal structural abnormalities, for example, when a piece of chromosome is connected to the end of another chromosome, the chromosome marked with 2 different dyes, not a single dye, will be seen.

Microarray, the Array Comparative Genomic Hybridization (a-CGH) method (see Microarray) can also be considered as a kind of molecular cytogenetic method.